Saturday, 9 June 2012


According to Al-Ghazali, the moral decay happens when there is an inverse relationship between prosperity and moral decline. Elaborate on this statement.

The world is changed, the period is faster. Eventually, we are easier to forget our good identity along our life. Nowadays, our environment had many changes to develop likes the others development countries. Malaysia is the one of changed country became more exposed with the level social in society especially teenagers. Undeniably, we are accepting the positive change through economics, buildings, industries, investments, agricultures and so forth. In fact, the issues that are aroused by people about moral decay whether old or young. Many parties include government, non-government or individuals tried to control and handle this problem which grows like mushroom. They gave suggestion, argument, programs and activities to lease social problems. But, it is bigger than our expectation.  The negative behavior is not proper as a symbol of the weaker society.
Therefore, I would like to highlight Muslim teenagers because they are foundation for our nation and Muslim reflected Islam as a formal religion for Malaysia. We as a leading religion not only in this country but also in this universe should practice good moral and values in our life because we are the Khairu Ummah (the best Ummah) in this universe. Allah said in Quran (3:110), ‘You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men;...’
It should be stand with the great principles and moral values related humanism and religion. Indeed, it based on Quran and Sunnah. The Prophet Muhammad is a good role model for us through His good character. He said that He is sent by God to accomplish the good moral.

In Oxford student`s dictionary,Moral” as a adjectives means concerned with what is right and wrong and having a high standard of behavior that is considered good and right by most people. In others meaning as a noun, it refers to standards of good behavior and a lesson in the right way to behave that can be learnt from a story or an experience.
While the others gave meaning moral as a noun as the quality or state of being morally sound good, goodness, probity, rectitude, righteousness, rightness, uprightness, virtue, virtuousness and also the moral quality of a course of action: ethic (used in plural), ethicality, ethicalness, propriety, righteousness, rightfulness, rightness. A rule or habit of conduct with regard to right and wrong or a body of such rules and habits: ethic, ethicality, moral (used in plural). See right/wrong.[1] The others standard college dictionaries carries out the word ‘moral’ is “pertaining to or concerned with right conduct or the distinction between right or wrong”.[2]
Actually, the word “morality” is always used to determine behavior`s people which is supposing to principles concerning what is good and bad or right and wrong behaviour.[3] “Morality” can be classified as a noun, plural as moralities. It can be defined  the quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct, a system of ideas of right and wrong conduct: religious morality; Christian morality, virtuous conduct and a rule or lesson in moral conduct.[4]
Morality (from the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and bad (or wrong). A moral code is a system of morality (for example, according to a particular philosophy, religion, culture, etc.) and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code. The adjective moral is synonymous with "good" or "right." Immorality is the active opposition to morality whether good or right, while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any set of moral standards or principles.[5]
If we relate morality to ethical issues, which means principles of right and wrong conduct as well as instances of real behaviour and the manner in which individuals, comply more or less fully with such standards. Based on the Latin mor is a ‘manner, custom’. It covers all kinds of human actions, although it is often associated specifically with virtue in sexual conduct. To encourage moral conduct, early theological representations of sin and evil highlighted the body's capacity for suffering. In the medieval and early modern ages, morality referred to a religious framework; through diet and bodily maintenance, the individual was expected to defend himself against the temptation of the flesh.[6]
Although the morality of people and their ethics amount to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Kant, based on notions such as duty, obligation, and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, and generally avoiding the separation of ‘moral’ considerations from other practical considerations. The scholarly issues are complex, with some writers seeing Kant as more Aristotelian, and Aristotle as more involved with a separate sphere of responsibility and duty, than the simple contrast suggests.[7]
Ethics are also known as moral philosophy is that branch of philosophy which addresses questions about morality. The word 'ethics' is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality' to mean the subject matter of this study; and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual." Likewise, certain types of ethical theories, especially deontological ethics, sometimes distinguish between 'ethics' and 'morals': "Although the morality of people and their ethics amounts to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Kant, based on notions such as duty, obligation, and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, and generally avoiding the separation of 'moral' considerations from other practical considerations."[8]
The differences between moral and ethics is moral which is a system of evaluating human in outward and inward. Ethics is a system which is evaluating the actions of human appearance only. On the other hands,  morals includes thoughts, feelings and intentions through human relationship with God, man and man and man and other creatures while ethic accounts thinking, feeling and intention with man only. Furthermore, moral values ​​are determined by Allah through the Quran and the Prophet's guidance, but ethic is determined by human. Lastly, moral values ​​are absolute, perfect and regular, while ethics ​​are relative, subjective and temporary.
Decay as a verb means to (cause to) become rotten or ruined. As a noun,  verrot, vrot يَنْخُر، يَتَسَوَّس гния kazit se rådne verderben σαπίζω pudrirse, cariarse, deteriorarse lagunema panema, mädanema فاسد کردن؛ خراب کردن mädäntyä (faire) pourrir לְהִירָקֵב @@@לְהִירָקֵב$$$ सड़ना, बिगड़ना, घटना, मुरझाना, नाश होना propadati, trunuti romlik, szuvasodik membusuk rotna, skemmast deteriorare; cariarsi gesti, pūti pūt; trūdēt; sairt reput bederven forfalle, råtne gnić, psuć się apodrecer a (se) strica; a decădea гнить kaziť sa gniti kvariti förfalla, förstöra[], ruttna เสื่อมลง çürümek 使枯朽,使衰退 гнити; псуватися گلنا یا گلانا ، سڑنا یا سڑانا mục nát; sâu răng 使使退the act or process of decaying tooth decay; in a state of decay.[9] In another meaning, decay is used as a verb refers to become bad or be slowly destroyed and become weaker or less powerful. While in noun, it is the process or state being slowly destroyed.[10]
In journal entitled ‘Is There a Moral Decay’, the writers are Vern L. Bullough and Bonnie Bullough. Both of them said, ‘Before we can determine whether there is a moral decay we have to ask what is right conduct, what is meant by right and wrong, and what determines whether a person is righteous, just, virtuous, and good. This is an impossible task, one that the editors of the dictionary avoided by defining everything in general terms. When someone says that there is moral decay, it might be clear to that person what he or she means, but it is not necessarily clear to anyone else. For example, the changing level of tolerance and acceptance of homosexuality might be one person's definition of moral decay and be interpreted by another person as an important moral step forward.’ Overall, moral decay covers all negative behaviors that are not to bring support and gain the strength of the economic structure of the system and practiced in a community or country.
According to Russell Kirk in Wikipedia website, moral decay can be defined as the loss of an aim or object in life such as life values or moral values. From this definition we can simplified that moral decay is a decline of moral values.
Prosper is root word from properity as a verb means to develop in a successful way especially with money. So, prosperity as a noun defines as the state of being successful.[11] In other dictionary, prosperity is success, riches, plenty, ease, fortune, wealth, boom, luxury, well-being, good times, good fortune, the good life, affluence, top dollar (informal), life of luxury, life of Riley (informal), prosperousness a life of peace and prosperity. Opposite is poverty, want, failure, depression, shortage, misfortune, adversity, destitution, indigence.[12]
Based on According to Al-Ghazali this moral decay happens when there is an inverse relationship between prosperity and moral decline. Hedonistic worldview and lifestyle had poisoned us. From that statement we can say that moral decay or moral incline happens when wealth, physical and emotional satisfaction and pleasures become as the fundamental goals in our lives.

Views of scholars
            We heard many opinions and perceptions by people especially the scholars. Among the popular ones, Imam al-Ghazali said that ‘The moral decay happens when there is an inverse relationship between prosperity and moral decline.’ While Aristotle is also well-known by people as a great philosophy, gave his opinion that ‘Moral excellence comes about as a result of habit. We become just by doing just acts, temperate by doing temperate acts, brave by doing brave acts.’ He added, ‘The moral virtues, then, are produced in us neither by nature nor against nature. Nature, indeed, prepares in us the ground for their reception, but their complete formation is the product of habit.
Moreover, the others scholars stressed “Moral Conflicts” are passionate and difficult to resolve. Responses that is normally effective, such as explaining, persuading, and compromising, can make matters worse and drive people further apart in such conflicts. Moral conflicts occur when incommensurate social realities come to clash. In an original synthesis of communication theory and their own research, W. Barnett Pearce and Stephen W. Littlejohn describe a dialectical tension between the expression and suppression of conflict that can be transcended in ways that lead to personal growth and productive patterns of social action.
Besides that, Henry Brooks Adams views on ‘Morality is a private and costly luxury’.
‘The only immorality is not to do what one has to do when one has to do it.’ refers to
Jean Anouilh. Isaac Asimov is unexceptual to give his opinion about that. ‘Never let your sense of morals get in the way of doing what's right.’ The last one is according Sir Alfred Jules Ayer, ‘While moral rules may be propounded by authority the fact that these were so propounded would not validate them.’ So, we are more understanding and knowing the right views for our guide lines in life. 

The factors of moral decay
            There are development in technology field and intellectual. The moral decay among Malay teenagers, increase sociall problems and slippage of religion values which led to apostate represents the moral decline (Nasharudin Mat Isa, 2002).
            According to Aminuddin Ruskam, he recognizes two factors that bring to big impact in moral decay among Muslim societies. The first factor is external factor clearly involves social environment likes influence of media Massa in disseminating culture of glamorous life, entertainment culture, materialistic values.
In general, the development through information and communication of technology (ICT) carried service facility for an international network (internet) from the aspect information, download and portals freely. This situation caused people have individualistic attitude. They prefer to use their time by surfing internet rather than socialized with others. So, it gave us more challenges to foster the great moral in this era.
The second factor is internal factor. It involves confusion of mind, religious fragility among society especially the youth and negative attitude towards communication networks. It refers to lack of resilient of mind and religion to reject the elements of east culture. So, we must gain our knowledge with Islamic education and we practice it. It should be our strength and guidance in overcoming our obstacles. If we lost knowledge and the basic guidance spiritual, we are exposing with two factors simply. First, exposure to the Western mindset continuously. Second, lack of effectiveness approachment used in moral education and religion in fostering the values ​​of spirituality.
From my opinion, there are four factors. The first that I would like to raise is related to ourselves. That`s mean all our behaviour and actions will start from us. We have lust in ourselves. Lust is a gift of Allah to fulfill our desires. But, it always encourages us to do bad things. If we follow our bad desires, we are easier to loss our dignity, religious and cultural values ​​of society and lead to evil, as happens in today's society. So, we must control it and defend with positive guidance and support from the others people. As a weaker human, we suppose to depend on Allah and concern our relationship with Allah and also human.
The second factor is involving people surrounding us. Our relationship is almost to parents, siblings, relatives, friends and societies. Individuals live in a family who is not practice the great lifestyle and the good moral, it grows to the bad behaviour, spoken word and had a bad lifestyle. Besides that, the influence of peers and society are also so worrying us because it is many design our character, moral behaviour and how to act. Usually, we see that school students are always loitering with their friends in midnight.
The next point refers to our environment. If we grow up in town, we can see the moral decay happens rapidly besides us unconsciously. Many places that we can attend for our demands likes disco, pub, cinemas unlimited and no obstruction. Moreover, culture of society that tends toward liberalism and love entertainment such as rock, rap and so on. Initially, the presence of advanced technology through mass media such as newspaper, magazines, and electronic tools likes television, radio, astro, and communication tools as handphone, internet became the worst impact in the formation of a character through scenes of violent and sexual naturally which is could destroy our lives.
Last but not least, another unseen, main enemy who always accompany us with exploiting our lust. Devil works as an destructive agent to destroy us and very annonying since Prophet Adam continued until the Day of Judgement. In short, every people must to be a good person and prepare ourselves to face trials and challenges throughout the life.

The levels of moral
According to Imam al-Ghazali, ‘Morals are inherent in the nature of the soul that makes it easy to act without much consideration’. Hence, Abul a`la al-Maududi divided the levels of moral into four levels which are Faith (Iman), Islam, Piety (Takwa) and Compassionate (Ehsan). All levels arranged smoothly. So, the second level will result after the first level.
 Faith is the foundation of life. It is a declaration of faith and the brochure. When both of it is accepted, then it is will be perfect conditions to qualify as a Muslim. The question is whether such declaration is sufficient to form the basis for building the Islamic life? Or how faith strenghtens us? Islam is a perfect life can only be built when the faith was really holistic and great. Shortly, Muslim life would not be perfect without the support of confession (declaration) a holistic faith.
Islam is the second building of Islamic morality. And its relationship to faith is like the seed of a tree; in which the tree is in accordance with what is in the seeds. Any deficiency in the seed will form an impact on trees growing. In fact, the tree will not grow if not planted
or planted in the dry land and not fertile. The same applies to faith. When we have faith, then surely it will be apparent in all actions of human behavior. If we found deficiencies or defects (Islam forbidden) at any our step we took it, there are something wrong with faith. Even if there is, it is only faith is dim. In Quran, Allah explained how intimates the relationship between faith (belief) and Islam (charity). In fact, even He has promise that the reward to His servants really believe on God and doing the good deeds. As long as the submission one is still not perfect, and his effort on the non-fee-Sabilillah, we know that his faith is weak and relatively impossible to build a righteous and compassionate, even when trying to deceive the some behavior or dress.
Piety is a feeling that comes fear and obedient towards Allah that is highlighted
in every human action.
His heart was constantly surrounded by the fear of God and submits to Him. He realized that life is a test from Him. When life is based on these feelings, the religious value will become apparent and his heart will always be jerks everytimes.
If any person make any contradicts with the will of God, he will account himself to regret and repent from wrong doings. He is not only does it, but he always remains himself be alert in all behaviours and all doubtful things clear let alone illegal. He will always force
himself to perform the command and the duty of God with full consent. Even the soul is always overshadowed by extreme fear of Allah as to make the legs seem to tremble for fear that
contradict the syariah limits.
Imagine a life form that will be produced when all these values ​​dominate our lives. Unlike the duty on some people are only considered as a specific treatment
sometimes quite far-fetched at the same time in their lives, how think, work and their commitment does not match the claims of faith.
In a compassionate is the highest form of Islam. It is a condition that makes a full surrender his life to Islam, his keep in touch with God, his love is deep to the messenger
shrouded soul feel honest and always want to sacrifice. If fear of birth and the fear of God becoming a human driver for always away in him. The courtesy was born out of love for Him
so as to get him to always hunt Allah willing.
As a civil servant, she must carry out her responsibilities vigorously. She is also compliant with all service policies outlined by the government. In short, she was under schema standards. Another example, as a civil servant, he is not only working hard. But, he will implement his responsible or comply with all policies services outlined by the government. He is also a trust and honest person with his employer. His brain is always spinning, thinking of ways how to improve performance services. His soul will not be quiet when he see there is something that threatens employer's safety. Automatically, he will be a voluntere person to do anything even with blood and his life. His dream only to show his excellence to the employer. In conclusion, he wanted to do something beyond what is outlined by schema standards. Two situations above are much related with us. It indicates how an employee with an employer. It seems as a servant with his Creature. As a Muslim, we must aply all levels above without exception. 

The roles of the individual, parents, society and government
            Nowadays, the moral decay is too worried by people. An individual is the one of important person to play a role in avoiding trapped by moral problem. We must strengthen the values ​​of faith and belief in the soul. Controlling the senses of seeing and hearing things that raise or strengthen the lust and desires that the root of all evil and depraved nature. Then, clean our heart through learning the description or explanation of al-Quran and Hadith and also interpretation by scholars of exemplary character.
Next, train ourselves familiarized with the good things as religious form of prayer, fasting and stay away from evil and shameful deeds. Unforgetten, make friends and neighbors who are noble as a friend or neighbor to influence us. Furthermore, learning about the life of the Prophet, his companions, scholars or Auliya and make their lives as role models in our lives. In all our actions must always follow and use common sense and not according to our desires lust. Importantly, we must pray and ask for Allah's help so equipped ourselves with morals and protection of the things that are not aimed.
The family institution is important to help prevent young people from falling into the trap
social ills. In family, there are two people who are the most important person, father and mother or simply known as parent. So, parents should stress about religion. The existence of a strong religious, the youth will not simply fall to the bad matters. In this case, the role of parents is very crucial, especially as a model to their children. Busy is no excuse as a barrier to the case of parental care their children.
 The most important role of parents is knowing and practising quality time to gather with their children. Parents should have time to communicate and concern about their children. In addition, parents must befriend to them. By this way, the children will be more
believe on parents and make them as a reference when dealing with the problem. When children talk about their problems, parents should focus and listen carefully. Do not continue to speculate is not good or even to punish. Give their time to discuss and find the best solution.
Parents are also encouraged to plan activities with their children and family members.
For example, in the month of Ramadan, as far as possible all family members gather for
breaking their fast together or going to the mosque to pray Tarawih.
 The parents also need to constantly monitor the situation of children, cannot 'just take for granted'. They cannot leave their children alone. Children need to be guided. In addition, parents need to know the kids friend their teens. If necessary, occasionally ask that the children brought friends them to the house to be ascertained with whom our children are friends. Parents need to be always pray that their children safe from the things that are not desired.
Those parents should be aware that prayer is very important to well-being of kids.
Indeed, the task of the society towards moral likes faith, thought and worship. Dr. Yusuf al-Qardawi classified task or role to three things, namely Taujih (direct), Tatshit (strengthening), and Himaayah (preservation). Taujih or direct can be done with the dissemination of leaflets, propaganda in various mass media, supplies, preach (da'wah) and guiding the straight path (irsyad). Tatshit (strengthening) was done in a very long time education, with the root of training (Tarbiyah) and deeper in the home, schools and universities. While Himaayah can be implement by two ways. Firstly, the operation of an active public opinion, with asking the right things and forbidding the wrong things, and hate the damage and refused deviations. Secondly, the law or the laws that prohibit damage prior to the occurrence and grant sanction after the occurrence. It is to intimidate (tarhib) who want to deviate and to educate people to damage and clean the congregational climate of moral problems. With these three things, namely taujih, tatsbit and himaayah the Islamic moral will grow, grow and walk in the social life like water flows containing nutrients in the trunk of the tree up to the leaves.
Government should focus film processes. Most of the ads, drama and stories showing a negative action and gave negative impact for television viewers. We can not fail to notice the show on television for fear of its effects, such as sexual orientation picture. In addition, the government should impose penalties and hard on the people who do offense against decency. Besides that, does not give license to the operators that are not healthy places such as discos, brothels and so on. They must also be alert to illegal operators. Provision of immigration to stringent examination when symptoms are not well brought from outside and within countries, such as drugs and others to avoid this symptom easily spread among the people of Malaysia. So, they should have warned us so hard and plays important role to settle down the moral decay.

                   In a nutshell, Islam is a comprehensive concept of morality. It straightened relationship between man to another man, the relationship between humans with God, Allah, man's relationship to the environment and yourself. The procedure is explained in detail the relationship of faith in the discipline, courtesy or moral laws in specific words. Islamic Morals and implementation obidien (ubudiyyah) towards appreciate the faith of God according to the proper way.
                   Islamic Morals also contained the provisions of the law. Islamic law refers to reward system and punishment. A moral of Islam itself is a detailed and disciplined over moral ideas in other religions. It is only commitment and appreciation of the value and the only underlies the problems of Muslims today. High character of the ummah will always be in bawahkeredhaan and protection of God. Development of a moral community bergantungkepada for establishment of individual countries yangtinggi the character will lead to peace and blessings of Allah SWT sentiasadibawah.
What should and what should not be done by a person. Moral also build and nurture the human spirit, creating and directing the behavior of individuals towards the good. Through the good character, we can avoid us from the internal and external crises values such as the collapse of the household and society and morality remajayang backward. The collapse of morality will fail an effort to change a community, but if the great character that we can maintain the position of a community. The importance of moral positions in the association of human life is to live well together in this world and hereafter.
We have to be realistic about this. We have more than a million people in the state and there are certainly some bad apples, or if you like, black sheep.
Related to our Muslim teenagers around us, they are not only dressed in improper attire but they also behave in rude ways. Culture and religion are nothing and excluded from their diaries as a good Muslim. They think freedom and happiness must be their first desires. Unproperly, we put Islam only as a religion but, not as our obedient in religion. It is totally shameless. It is including the way we behave in our daily life. As Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. said,
'This Deen or way of life is easy'; 'Make it easy, don't make it difficult; 'Let people rejoice in being Muslims and not run away from it'.
I hope that our future generation will have some form of insulation against corrupt practices, mismanagement and fraud. With sound knowledge of Islam, I hope the next generation will be more civilised, progressive and morally sound. It’s not going to be easy as there are detractors. I am serious about checking moral decay and transforming the people into a progressive workforce.

1)      Aswati Binti Hamzah (2007), Tesis: Satu Kajian Skema Taakulan Akhlak dalam kalangan Pelajar Melayu, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
2)      Abul a`la al-Maududi , Book: Asas Akhlak bagi Harakah Islamiah, p. 7-10.
3)      Haroun Yahya, Book: Moral Values of the Qur`an, Egypt, Dar Al-Kalimah.
4)      Dr. Muhammad Fathi Syanithi (1970), Book: Ussusisa Metafizikal Akhlak, Lubnan, Dar an-Nahdhoh `Arabiyyah.
5)      Pearce, W. Barnett and Stephen W. Littlejohn. Moral Conflict: When Social Worlds Collide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, April 1997.
6)      American heritage dictionary
7)      Hadith.
8)      Oxford componian to body
9)      Oxford student`s  dictionary for learners using English to study other subjects
10)  Quran.
13)  http://www.Morality.htm on 3 November 2011

[2] American College Dictionary (New York: Random House, 1962), p. 790.

[3] Oxford student`s  dictionary for learners using English to study other subjects, p. 459.
[4] American heritage dictionary.
1)Johnstone, Megan-Jane (2008). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0729538732. 
2)Superson, Anita (2009). The Moral Skeptic. Oxford University Press. pp. 127–159. ISBN 978-0195376623. 
3)"Amorality". Retrieved 2010-06-18.  "having no moral standards, restraints, or principles; unaware of or indifferent to questions of right or wrong"
4)"amoral". Wiktionary. Retrieved 2010-09-09.  "(of people) not believing in or caring for morality and immorality"

[6]  Oxford componian to body.
[7]  Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.
[8]  Oxford Dictionary of philosophy, 2008, p240.
[9]  Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary (2006-2010).

[10] Oxford student`s  dictionary for learners using English to study other subjects (2007), p. 189.

[11] Oxford student`s  dictionary for learners using English to study other subjects (2007), p. 558.
[12] Collins Thesaurus of the English Language, Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. (2002) © HarperCollins Publishers (1995).

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