Sunday, 24 August 2014


The supreme quality for a leader is
unquestionably integrity-Dwight D. Elsenhower

The purpose of this journal is to understand the meaning of integrity leadership and the impact that perceptions of integrity have on perceptions of leadership effectiveness in the context of leadership behaviors.  Integrity has many importance that of leadership behaviors on perceived effectiveness for leaders and their followers. There is a significant relationship between being flexible and perceived effectiveness. Goal orientation is the leadership role that bosses most strongly associate with perceived effectiveness.
This journal articulates the perception of integrity in an organization, tests the axiom that integrity is an essential component of effective leadership, and provides empirical evidence on the role that perceptions of integrity has on the perceptions of leader effectiveness. Integrity will be as strong as has been suggested.
Integrity is the existence in the quality of individual or organization. The quality of individual is the words same with the personalities. The action is suitable with the principal of morals, ethical and laws for a particular purpose or generally. When an individual do the job quickly and consist in the good behaviors will call the individual integrity. The quality of organization is summarized and required by ethical code, customer rules, system and work process and obedient to the good action.  The ethical code in organization normally repeated in organization.
Thomas M. Cunningham gave his opinion about the consist of integrity includes self-respect, loyalty to the department’s vision and mission and honesty to yourself and others .          Siti Ibrahim said that the integrity is one of the positive traits for an effective and good leader. Personal integrity represents an honest, reliable and trustworthy person. If you are a leader; then you will bring along that good trait into your leadership style. It is a blessing for an organization to have such a leader in their organization. Having many integrity leaders will indirectly shape up the organization to be an integrity organization, be respected by employees and public.
According to the president of Merriam-Webster, “Integrity is one of the top ten words most looked up on the company`s online dictionary. I am not altogether surprised by this news. Integrity is what I like to call a ‘big concept’ word. It is thrown around a lot, especially in business. But, many people are not quite sure what it really means.”
 Integrity involves the three R’s, those are respect for self, respect for others, and responsibility for all our actions.  A leader is the role model by which the group that they command is most influenced. Eventually this will lead to a molding or modeling of the group’s behavior. This is why a leader (fire officer), must have and maintain the highest standard of character and integrity whether on or off duty. So, the others will respect the leader without doubting and believe him or her. At last, we can see the leader is very responsible for self and others after the existence of integrity features.
"No one can be happy who has been thrust outside the pale of truth. And there are two ways that one can be removed from this realm: by lying, or by being lied to." [1]
As an example, the administration Malaysia established national integrity system which seeks to implement a system of governance that create confidence among the people. One of the pillars of national integrity is closely linked to the corporate executive leadership.
The term leadership is a word taken from the common vocabulary and incorporated into the technical vocabulary of a scientific discipline without being precisely redefined. For me, leadership is the one of skills that is needed by a leader to lead the followers and influence them to attain the wonderful goals.
Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of some common objectives. It is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm to achieve a shared stretch goal. As an element in social interaction, leadership is a complex activity involving a process of influence, actors who are both leaders and followers and a range of possible outcomes such as the achievement of goals, but also the commitment of individuals to such goals, the enhancement of group cohesion and the reinforcement of change of organizational culture. Dwight D. Eisenhower sai, "Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it".
According to Howell and Costley(2001), “Leadership is a process used by an individual to influence group members toward the achievement of group goals”.
While, according to Yukl (2002), “Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how it can be done effectively and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish the shared objective”.
The words from William A. Cohen, “Leadership is the art of influencing others to their maximum performance to accomplish any task, objective or project.”  (Cohen, 1990, 3).
Integrity and leadership are closely linked. Without integrity, leadership theories are just those theories. So, we cannot make it practically. Leadership is the base of the organization that binds the integrity as moral value together. Leadership is motivating people to perform the good job and achieve the mission. A good leader fosters the quality of trust and a sense of self-esteem. But a failure of integrity poisons the outfit, destroys the trust between people and the self-esteem moves down.
There is a connection between trust and integrity, but trust is a broader concept. People need to be competent to earn our trust, not just honest. To be a credible candidate for any job, a person needs the skills and personal qualities to be effective in the role. Integrity is also broader than honesty. In addition to being honest, leaders with integrity must behave ethically. A criminal could be honest while breaking the law. Leaders with integrity must have an unwavering commitment to culturally accepted values and be willing to defend them. This requires them to do the right thing even if it is not in their personal interest. Leaders with integrity are responsible and consistent.
The views of Gen Ronald R. Fogleman, integrity has own characteristics likes sincerity, substance, consistency and being a good finisher. Let me explain one by one from the top to the bottom. Sincerity is the one of characteristics of integrity that is unfeigned and presents no false appearance. For examples, a leader is sincere to spend their time during family together by doing the job overtime. Then, the leaders must have the strength to make the internal integrity through the tough times by showing their appearance of substance. Besides that, the leaders must also be consistent in their enforcement of disciplinary standards. As an example, he or she always arrive at the workplace on time or early than that. Finally, a leader must finish and perform the task to the maximum extent of their ability that is given by manager or cooperated with any organization.
According to Proffesor Dr. Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud(2009), “Leadership with integrity in an organization assumes an administration that  is wise and brave, firm and moderate, organized principled by truth.”
In Islam, integrity and the responsibility of leadership, administration and governance should be guided by values that come from religious outlook, obeying ethical foundations and the scope of Islamic laws. At the same time, they should incorporate all the collected wisdom from various sources then and now.[2]
Ibnu Ishaq said in Sirat Rasul Allah, “I have been appointed as a leader amongst you. If I carry out my tasks well, help me and if I do the opposite, correct me. Loyalty is because of believe and betrayal is because of falsehood. Those who are weak amongst you are strong alongside me because I give them rights…Evil will not spread amongst man unless Allah sends great misfortune to all. Obey me for as long as I obey Allah and the Prophet, and if I disobey them, there is no more obedience to me…”
I think the foundation of higher integrity and good leadership cannot be practiced effectively if they are separated from religion. I strongly reject the stand of some quarters who claim that the development of Islam in integrity leadership came from political consideration and historical development, even though many verses from the al-Quran and Prophet Muhammad `s Hadith referred to actual events in history.
Most western secular governments and their public administrations have shown a fine example to their citizens in matters of integrity and responsibility. They have implemented firm measures to enhance responsibility through the government machinery in their civil societies. Through rational political practices and the continuous support from their citizens, a good environment for western socio-political societies in the modern world was created.[3]
The words from Paul H. Douglas, “More important than efforts I have suggested to return to a situation that is true and appropriate, is the need for us to have a deep set of morals (at the individual level), that is encapsulated by words like honesty, truth, monitoring and empathy … (Because) the nation is a group of individuals, who till recently, went through years of negative exposure, has made us realize of the failure of individuals to live at a level that we can be proud of. The failure that we experience in government is a follow-up from our (individual) moral breakdown”. (Douglas, 1952, 102-103).
But, integrity and the responsibility of leadership cannot be denied that western history and civilization have given birth to many prominent figures who have contributed positively to material goodness and the thinking of the world community. Exactly, the results of some thoughts and western cultures have contributed to the decline of religion, morality and integrity of the world community.
Nowadays, the world has been become for development. This universe is fractured in a way that has not really existed before. The views from Sandra Waddock about that, “Fostering leadership integrity in the fractured knowledge economy that actually exits requires a significant shift o mind and a recognition of the links between the apparent plenty available to those in the knowledge economy and the destitution of much of the rest of the world, along with the ecological havoc that industrialization has wrought on the natural world. Integrity in this world means individual integrity, of course, with its ethical and values-laden basis, but it also means understanding the world as an integrated system ecologically, socially, and from a business ecosystem perspective.”(Waddock, 2007, 543).
The impact that perceptions of integrity have on perceptions of leadership effectiveness can seen  in becoming a successful leader. Qualities of leadership include humor, perspective, and flexibility as a number one. Secondly, focus on the achievement of goals that produce results. Thirdly, comprehension of what power and authority are. The leaders should communicate, listen and persuade. After that, they must know when to take risk. If the leader is a slow down person and always give up cannot be the strong stamina person, full energy, tenacity, courage and enthusiasm. The leader must build morale and can motivate. Besides that, they can form or build a coalition. Knowing the issues and be worldly. As a human, not all the knowledge that we obtain, so we always want to know and will to learn. Possesses intelligence, wisdom, judgment and possesses their own vision are the one of quality that is important to achieve successfully. Please be self-knowledge and confidence.  The last but not least is having the good character, honesty and integrity.Of all the qualities a leader must possess, integrity may be the most important one of them all.
The importance of integrity to leadership is the integrity as a trait that exists from inner self. As a leader, we only can prove our integrity by the actions that we took and the decision that we choose. A leadership that built with integrity normally is part from an integrity organization. We can be confident that an individual with flawed character will not last long in their organizations. Without integrity, employees have no faith, no trust and are always be mistreated. The management can expect a high employee turnover rate and the people will talk about that affected to the organization which is becoming down and corrupted.  Integrity also provide a real value of services with honesty and confident. Our leadership style will adopt the quote that is saying 'Honesty is the best policy'.
Virtually no one is completely honest. Who has not, for example, failed to stop at traffic lights, cheated on exams, padded expenses or exaggerated achievements to look good in a job interview? Many of us have what we might call "convenient values." We live up to them only when they do not prevent us from doing what we want. So, why is anyone dishonest? Reasons are complex, but they include the feelings of being entitled to something and being able to get away with it. People in high places feel that their power makes them untouchable because there is so much more to gain by bending the rules in high places, the temptation must be enormous. Because high profile leaders are so driven to stay in power, only the rarest of leaders can put principles.
But, how we react to integrity lapses? The answer is the people have own feeling, qualities integrity and characteristics. For example, we are angry and disappointed to moral failures of  others. Likewise, we also envy people in high places, we are secretly pleased to see that they are only human after all. Those of us with a guilty conscience are particularly prone to feeling a mixture of indignation and delight. Those who show the most anger may subconsciously be trying to rid themselves of guilt for an indiscretion of their own by dumping on the failed leader.
Our reaction is also related to the strength of our expectations. When we expect little of people, their failures don't surprise or matter much to us. When we feel hugely let down at the news of a flawed leader, therefore, we should ask ourselves why we expected so much of this person in the first place. In any case, our reaction to moral lapses in leaders is without doubt partly determined by our own attitudes, values and current mental state.
We can improve the integrity in high places through the education system and by implementing more transparent monitoring processes, but our culture must also reward it as much as it does the pursuit of selfish interests. Finally, we need to depend less on leaders to meet so many of our needs and, because they are only human, expect less of them.
There are four ingredients that make up the foundation for someone’s integrity. Without these factors joining combining together either the individuals foundation will be weak, or it will eventually crumble and disintegrate. The first is receptive ability such as failure as an leader occurs when one acts as an authoritarian leader. This person dominates and to a certain extent possesses a certain degree of arrogance that is above the norm. Secondly, be flexibility that are the type of leaders who carry the old timers attitude or simply state till the end. Humility is the third one carry out the title, image, and being the center of attention appeal more to us, than humility is one quality they do not possess. The last one is compassion. Thats meaning the leader bring himself or herself to reconcile a difference with a member of the company or department and will  be nice to followers and express compassion and mercy to the people to whom we provide service.
In conclusions, leadership is the very important thing in enhancing organization, community or society and the level integrity of people. The leadership must have the vision and mission to organize and achieve the commons goal. Moreover, the leaders have to show their leadership as a role model and do the positive changes. If the situation becomes worse, integrity will become descending. The leaders must obey the laws, the procedures and the rules which are determined in National Integrity Plan. Exactly, all the organizations should have integrity in their leadership, the correct mindset at a certain core belief, values and principle. Everyone should develop that mindset especially those who lead the organization. There is a common theme among experts who have studied or written about modern leadership. That all leaders must act with integrity at all times. The first reason for acting with integrity is that subordinates are constantly observing the lead figure. Lastly,the leader must employ the authority granted him or her by the organization to achieve the purposes of the organization, all the while recognizing that the knowledge needed to exercise this authority resides throughout the organization and its environment.
 I really like the words from Burke Davis, “Without integrity, leadership cannot flourish and our mission will suffer.” (Davis, 1988, 245-246).


[1] Seneca, Roman philosopher and writer.

[2] Discussion between Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas and Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, The ICLIF Leadership Competency Model (LCM).
[3] Paul H. Douglas, Ethics in Government.

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