Tuesday, 29 May 2012


Da`wah is an obligation for all Muslims. The connotation of the word da`wah from the word ‘da'a’ means call, invite others to a specific matter. The term refers to the missionary call people to Allah (Abdul Karim Zaidan, 1976). The call to Allah is not just call to mind an idea or ideology,  but also calls on the appreciation of Islam as ad-din or a total way of life. Therefore, the missionary  effort is transforming people and the rest from aspect thoughts, feelings, behavior and life purpose to comply the purpose and requirements specified by the Muslims. Da`wah  has four pillar, missionary (dai`e), the people who are invited (mad`u), content (maudhu`) and method (manhaj/uslub).
The Prophet Muhammad was the first preacher who calls to Islam during his time. Then, the preacher as a dai`e. He taught us how to call people to Islam. It is related to missionary (dai`e) that I want to study how missionary nowadays spread Islam to people especially non-Muslims.
Then, Islam as a tittle or maudhu` adda`wah in reality and truth. Indeed, this noble Prophet Muhammad presened the truth about Islam with the best delivery, complete and commitment continuously. Allah sent him to people as the honor of His apostle. So, he spread and preach Islam until his death. We are still feel him around us.
While missionary goals are allowing people to accept and appreciate the teachings of Islam in their daily life.  It should take concern about human factors such as physiological (the necessities of life), mental (level of experience and learning), feelings and psychological (soul). The most and foremost important for the preacher movement is to fulfill responsibilities and meet people as inheritors for inviting people to kindness and prevent from evil.

The ways in da`wah missionary are well-known as a da`wah method or approach (manhaj). According to  Abdullah Mohd. Zin, he said that ‘Method means a particular way of doing something’. A particular way brings a meaning as a way or a specific method to do something. Indeed, Muhammad Mahmud al-Sawwaf and Muhammad Husayn Fadlullah unanimously concluded that the main way of missionary or da`wah approach to invite the people to Islam mentioned in the Quran in chapter An-Nahl, verse 125.
Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance.
Based on this verse, there are three methods to do the missionary activities with wisdom (bilhikmah), good advice and good teaching (mauizah al-hasanah) and debate with the great ways (mujadalah billati hiya ahsan).
Furthermore, Poston (1992) pointed his study that the traditional strategy of da`wah has been through control of society`s institutions. He also divide da`wah approach to non-Muslims into two types. The first one is role model through the example of the pious lives of Muslims. He looked forward by taking examples from North American organizations.The second point is direct approach by meeting them face to face to invite them to discuss or debate rationally.
            Da`wah target is human as a mad`u. Allah stressed in chapter Saba`, verse 46:
Say: "I do admonish you on one point: that ye do stand up before Allah,- (It may be) in pairs, or (it may be) singly,- and reflect (within yourselves): your Companion is not possessed: he is no less than a warner to you, in face of a terrible Penalty." Initially, human target is not limited to Muslims only, but also people who have not accept guidance from Allah.
I highlighted da`wah methods to Christians only because I want to know them deeply. To further improve the technique in doing missionary to Christians, their religious doctrines should be understood. We need to understand the fundamentals of their faith from the perspective of their own understanding. To distinguish between right and wrong, the Quran and the Hadith as a reference. There are five basic beliefs of Christians, namely: sin Heritage, Jesus is the son of God, Jesus is God, Jesus cross and Trinity. 
We must use the appropriate methodology in preaching da`wah to non-Muslims especially Christians that I chose. Among factors that are needed by Da`ie are knowledgeable, experiences, application, studying, research, understanding about Islam and improvement towards implementation of da`wah.
Understanding the missionary methods brought by our Prophet Muhammad is a very important. It is shown by him on how to preach da`wah is a sunnah. It is a basic principle for preparation and implementation in preaching Islam to Muslims and also non-Muslims. If we cannot understand and appreciate about da`wah approach clearly, it is feared that missionary effort becomes not effective and not reach the aim.
Da`wah is the path to Islam, as has been described in the Quran, chapter Ali-Imran, verse 19:
The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account.
            Nowadays, many organisations are built to implement da`wah missionary whether government organisation or non-government organisation. They play an important role to spread Islam widely. We can see their effort to complete this task. But, we must prepare the effective strategies in reminding Muslims to appreciate Islam deeply and attracting non-Muslims to know Islam clearly. Here, we move to call non-Muslims into Islam especially Christians. Hence, studying da`wah to them helps us to understand Islam overall.  We can practice what we learned with the variety of theories.
            There are three levels (marhalah) in da`wah methods that missionarists must go through those levels. First level is Marhalah ad-Di'ayah (at-Ta'rif): propaganda level,  introduce, describe fikrah and deliver to the people in all walks of life. Secondly, Marhalah  at-Takwin as a  formation level ,selection of the proponents, prepare armed forces, preachers and jihad erta educate them. They were selected from those who have welcomed the missionary call. Lastly, Marhalah Tanfiz means  exercise level, work,strive to reach a goal.
Usually three levels must run together and adjusted as the preaching unity and  strength is dependent upon the merger between one with entirely. Therefore the exponent in the missionary must choose and form and at the same time he did and do what can be done.

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